Respiratory System in English | Easy To Respiratory System Function, fantastic Information 2022

Respiratory System Parts, Respiratory System Parts and Functions, Human Respiratory System, Respiratory System Diagram, Explain Human Respiratory System with Diagram.

Respiratory System : Every organism needs oxygen to survive. This oxygen reaches the cells and oxidizes foods to generate energy. We breathe in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

Oxidation of food by oxygen to form water and CO2 and release of energy is called respiration. Let us know about the Respiratory System in English.

The Respiratory System is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. This includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels.

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The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean up waste gases such as carbon dioxide.

The respiratory system or ‘respiratory system’ includes the respiratory organs such as the nose, larynx, trachea and lungs. The main function of this system is the exchange of gases in all parts of the body.

Introduction Respiratory System :

The cells of the body require energy for their chemical reactions. This BP helps in maintaining various parameters like respiration, temperature and acid base balance (homeostasis).

Energy from chemical reactions is obtained with the help of oxygen and wastes such as carbon dioxide are generated. Co2 is harmful to body parts when it accumulates in the body. The process of taking in oxygen and removing CO2 is done by the respiratory system.

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This exchange of gases is called respiration. External respiration takes place in the lungs between the blood and the lungs. Internal respiration takes place between cells and blood in the body’s organs.

Organs of the respiratory system – The organs include nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, two bronchi, bronchi oles, two lungs, pleura, muscles of respiration and diaphragm.

Nose and Nasal Cavity :

The nose is made up of many irregular flattened bones and cartilages. The nasal cavity is divided into two nostrils by the nasal septum. Sinuses in different bones open into the nasal cavity.

These include the frontal, maxillary ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Sinuses make the scalp lighter and help in the speech process.

The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity is rich in blood supply and is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells secreting mucus. The noncriminal ducts connect to the conjunctiva sac. They carry tears from the eyes into the nasal cavity.

Respiratory Function of the Nose :

The nose is the first organ through which air enters the respiratory system. The air becomes warm, moist and filtered as it travels through the nose. These functions are possible because the nasal cavity is highly vascularized with hairs.

Growth and mucus present in the cavity. Sneezing removes irritation from the nasal cavity. The sense of smell is a function of the nose. This sensation is detected by the olfactory nerve endings in the nasal cavity.

they are excited by chemical substances in the material. The sense of smell saves you from accidents caused by poison and gas leakage.

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Diagram of the nasal cavity and pharynx (Throat) – It is a tubular structure 12 to 14 cm long that extends from the base of the skull to the level of the esophagus (sixth cervical vertebra). It is located behind the nose, mouth and larynx.

It is divided into naso-pharyngeal, oro-pharyngeal and laryngeal-pharyngeal. It communicates with the nasal cavity, Eustachian tube, mouth, larynx and esophagus.

Naso-pharynx – This part lies behind the nose. The auditory tubes open on its lateral walls. The tonsils (adenoids) lie on the posterior wall.

Oro-pharynx – The oral part lies behind the mouth. The palatine tonsils a collection of lymphoid tissues lie on the posterior wall.

Laryngo-pharynx – It extends from lower end of oro-pharynx above and continues as esophagus below.

Structure of the Pharynx :

It is composed of three layers of tissues.

Mucus membrane – In naso-pharynx, it is made of ciliated columnar epithelium. In oropharynx and laryngo-pharynx it is formed by the tougher stratified squamous epithelium.

Fibrous tissue – They form the middle layer.

Muscle layer – There are many involuntary constrictor muscles which help in swallowing (deglutition). The upper part of the esophagus (food pipe) is always closed by the lower constrictor muscle except during swallowing.

The Blood and Nerve Supply :

The blood is supplied to the pharynx by small branches of the facial artery. The veins drain into the facial and internal jugular veins.

The nerve supply is from vagus and glasso-pharyngeal nerves. They supply parasympathetic nerve fibers and sympathetic nerves from superior cervical ganglion.

Functions of the Pharynx :

  • Passage of air and food
  • Warming and moistening (humidifying) the air
  • Taste
  • Hearing – Equal air pressure maintained by the Eustachian tubes on each side of the ear drum.
  • Protection – Help to produce antibodies.
  • Speech

Larynx (Sound or Voice Box) :

It extends from the root of the tongue to the trachea. After puberty, males get bigger in size. It is composed of four cartilages irregular in shape and connected to each other by ligaments and membranes. The major structure in the throat is also called the Adams apple. The four cartilages are the thyroid, cricoids, arytenoids, and epiglottis.

Blood supply – The superior and inferior laryngeal arteries supply blood and the veins drain into the internal jugular veins. The nerve supply is by the vagus and superior cervical ganglia. The nerve supply for movements and sensations is both sympathetic and parasympathetic.

Interior of the Larynx :

The two vocal cords are the folds of the mucous membrane. The pitch of the sound depends upon the contraction and relaxation of the muscles controlling the vocal cords.

Functions of the Larynx –

  • Sound production
  • Speech
  • Protection of lower respiratory
  • Air passage way
  • Warming, filtering and humidifying the inspired air
Trachea : Respiratory System

The trachea or the wind pipe is a continuation of the larynx (sound box). It is around 10 – 11 cm long and lies in the mid line. It divides into two bronchi, one bronchus entering to each lung.The structures associated with the trachea are..

  • Superior – Larynx.
  • Inferior – Right and left bronchi.
  • Anterior – Thyroid and aorta, sternum.
  • Posterior – esophagus (food pipe).
  • Laterally – Lungs and lobes of thyroid.

Structure – The trachea is formed by 16to20 ‘C’ shaped elastic cartilages (hyaline) connective tissue and involuntary muscles. The three layers are……….

  • Outer layer of fibrous and elastic tissues.
  • Middle layer of cartilage (‘C’ shaped) and involuntary muscles. This layer contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and autonomic nerves.
  • The inner layer is made up of ciliated columnar epithelium which contains mucus secreting glands.

Blood supply – This is mainly by inferior thyroid and bronchial artery. The venous return is by the inferior thyroid vein into the brachiocephalic veins.

Nerve supply – occurs by the pair of parasympathetic recurrent laryngeal nerve and vagus. Sympathetic nerve supply is by nerves from the sympathetic ganglia.

Lymph – The lymph around the trachea collect the lymph from trachea and related organs.

Functions of the Trachea :

  • Transport of air and patency.
  • Mucus clearance.
  • Cough reflex.
  • Warming, humidifying and filtering of air
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Their structure is similar to that of the trachea. The three layers of tissues are similar with some changes in size and shape. Blood supply is by right and left bronchial arteries and venous return is by bronchial veins.

The Nerve Supply : Respiratory System

The vagus (parasympathetic) stimulation causes contraction of the bronchi. The sympathetic stimulation causes broncho-dilatation. Depending upon the stimulation the smooth muscles contract or relax.

Functions of the Bronchi :
  • Control of air entry.
  • Warming and humidifying.
  • Support and patency.
  • Removal of mucus and other solids.
  • Cough reflex.
Respiratory Bronchioles and Alveoli :

These structures are present in lobules. Each lobe in the lung is made up of several lobules. The lobules contain the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar tubes, and alveoli (small air sacs).

These are supported by elastic-connective tissues containing macrophages, fibroblasts, nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels.

The alveoli are surrounded by a network of capillaries. Respiration (exchange of gases) occurs between the alveoli and the capillary membrane.

Lungs : Respiratory System

Position and relation- In the thoracic cavity there are two lungs on each side of the midline. They are conical in shape with base top costal and medial surface. The base is concave and crescent in shape and close to the diaphragm.

The apex is conical and close to the clavicle and blood vessels and first rib. The costal surface is convex and is close to the ribs, cartilage and muscles.

The medial surface is concave and the hilum lies on this surface through which bronchus, blood vessels, lungs vessel and nerves enter and leave the lungs on both sides.

The area between the lungs is occupied by heart blood vessels, trachea, esophagus lymph vessels, lymph nodes and nerves.

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The lungs are covered by two layers of thin serous membrane. The membrane (pleura) consists of loose areolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium.

The pleural cavity is filled with a thin layer of serous fluid called pleural fluid. The pleura near the lungs is called the visceral pleura.

The layer of pleura which is close to the ribs and thoracic wall is called parietal layer. The pleura and pleural fluid prevent friction and injury to the lungs during breathing.

Interior of the Lungs :

The lungs are formed by bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, connective tissue, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves.

Blood supply – Pulmonary artery and two pulmonary veins carry the blood back to heart.

Muscles of Respiration : Respiratory System
  • External inter costal muscles.
  • Internal intercostal muscles.
  • Diaphragm.
  • The muscles of abdomen, neck and shoulder in deep breathing or difficult breathing.

Respiratory System FAQs :

What is the definition of respiratory system?

The respiratory system or ‘respiratory system’ includes the respiratory organs such as the nose, larynx, trachea and lungs. The main function of this system is the exchange of gases in all parts of the body.

What is the function of the respiratory system?

The system located in the body that takes the oxygen of the atmosphere in the form of breathing (inspiration) and transports it to the internal cells of the body and the carbon dioxide located in the internal cells of the body does the important work of releasing it. in the external environment, is called the respiratory system.

What is the respiratory capacity of a human?

The breathing rate in humans is 12-15 times per minute. During normal respiration, about 1500 ml of air is filled in the lungs at all times. This is called the functional residual capacity of the lung.

Which gas is released during respiration?

In respiration mainly oxygen(O_(2))Carbon dioxide etc. gases participate.

How many systems are there in the human body?

The various organ systems of the human body are – digestive system, circulatory system, endocrine system, excretory system, reproductive system, nervous system, respiratory system, skeletal system and muscular system.

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